(English: Faith, Unity, Discipline)
|Anthem: Pak sarzamin
(Blessed Be The Sacred Land)
|Official language(s)||Urdu and English|
|From the United
- Water (%)
880,254 km² (34th)
- 2006 est.
- Per capita
$385.2 billion (26th)
|HDI (2003)||0.527 (135th) – medium|
- Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+5:00)
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان) is a country located in South Asia that overlaps with the Greater Middle East. It has a thousand-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea in the south and borders Afghanistan and Iran to the west, India to the east and the People's Republic of China in the far northeast.
The name Pakistan (IPA:/pa:kɪst̪a:n/) means Land of the Pure in Urdu and Persian and was coined in 1933 by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, who published it in the pamphlet Now or Never as an acronym of the names of the "Muslim homelands" of western India — P for Punjab, A for Afghania (the Afghan areas), K for Kashmir, S for Sindh and tan for Baluchistan. An i was later added to the English rendition of the name to ease pronunciation.
Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and the second most populous Muslim country. Pakistan was established as a modern state in 1947, but the region has a long history of settlement and civilisation including some of the most ancient cultures. The region was invaded by Greeks, Persians and Arabs, and incorporated into British India in the nineteenth century. Since independence, Pakistan has seen both instability, with the loss of East Pakistan, and significant military and economic growth. In 2005 the economy was the second-fastest growing economy amongst the ten most populous countries and the twenty-fifth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. Pakistan has the seventh largest armed forces in the world and is one of eight declared nuclear powers.
- Main article: History of Pakistan
The modern state of Pakistan was created in 1947, but the region has an extensive ancient history that overlaps with the history of India, Iran and Afghanistan. The region was a crossroads of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road, and was settled over thousands of years by many groups including Dravidians, Persians, Greeks, Kushans, and Arabs. The earliest evidence of humans are pebble tools of the Soan Culture in the Punjab province between 500,000 to 100,000 years ago. The Indus region was the site of several ancient cultures including Mehrgarh, one of the world's earliest towns, and the Indus Valley Civilisation at Harrappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The Indus Valley Civilisation collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation which extended over much of northern India and Pakistan. Successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region from the Achaemenid Persian empire around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire. The Indo-Greek Kingdom of Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture and the city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning.
In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab, setting the stage for several successive Muslim empires including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. During this period Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional population to Islam. The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over the subcontinent.
The 1857 Indian War of Independence ("Sepoy Mutiny") was the region's last major armed struggle against the British, but it laid the foundations for the generally unarmed freedom struggle led by the Indian National Congress. However the All India Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930's amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. In 1930 Allama Iqbal called for a separate Muslim state in northwest and eastern India. Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, which led to the partition of India in 1947.
Pakistan was formed on August 14, 1947 with two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent, separated by Hindu-majority India, and comprising the provinces of Baluchistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. Partition resulted in communal riots across India and Pakistan—millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. Disputes arose over several princely states including Jammu and Kashmir which led to the First Kashmir War (1948) ending with Pakistan and India each occupying large parts of the state. From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. The republic declared in 1958 was stalled by a coup d'etat by Ayub Khan (1958–69), who was president during a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969–71) had to deal with the cyclone which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan. Economic and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political repression and tensions escalating into civil war (Bangladesh Liberation War) and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and ultimately the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.
Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, but he was deposed by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the third military president. The secular policies of the past were replaced by Zia's introduction of the Islamic Shariat legal code, and increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. Muhammad Khan Junejo was elected in 1985 as Prime Minister, but with the death of General Zia in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she alternated in power with Nawaz Sharif as the political and economic situation worsened. Military tensions in the Kargil conflict with India in 1999 were followed by a military coup in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers. In 2001, he became President after the resignation of Rafiq Tarar and after the 2002 parliamentary elections, transferred executive powers to newly elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in 2004 by Shaukat Aziz. On 8 October 2005, a powerful earthquake of magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale struck the northern mountains of Pakistan and neighbouring regions in India and Afghanistan with the official death toll on 8 November standing at 87,350 and an estimated 3.3 million left homeless in Pakistan.
Government and politics
The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973, suspended in 1977 by Zia-ul-Haq, was re-instated in 1991 and is the most important document laying the foundations of government in the country. Pakistan is a federal republic with Islam as the state religion. The semi-presidential system includes a bicameral legislature consisting of a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The President is the Head of State and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and is elected by an electoral college. The prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister. Provincial Governors are selected by the Provincial Assemblies on the advice of the Chief Minister.
The Muslim League's leadership of Pakistani politics reduced significantly with the rise of other political parties, especially the Awami League in East Bengal, which would lead the creation of Bangladesh. The Pakistani military have played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's history, with military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999 onwards. The leftist Pakistan People's Party, led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, emerged as a major political player during the 1970s. Under the military rule of Zia-ul-Haq, Pakistan began a marked shift from the British-era secular politics and policies, to the adoption of Shariat and other Islamic religious laws. During the 1980s, the anti-feudal, pro-Mohajir Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) was started by unorthodox and educated urban dwellers of Sindh and particularly Karachi. The 1990s were characterized by coalition politics dominated by the PPP and a rejuvenated Muslim League.
In the October 2002 general elections, the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q) won a plurality of National Assembly seats with the second-largest group being the Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians (PPPP), a sub-party of the PPP. Zafarullah Khan Jamali of PML-Q emerged as Prime Minister but resigned on June 26, 2004 and was replaced by PML-Q leader Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain as interim Prime Minister. On August 27, 2004 the National Assembly voted 191 to 151 to elect the Finance Minister and former Citibank Vice President Shaukat Aziz as Prime Minister. A coalition of Islamic religious parties also gained control of the North-West Frontier Province, and increased their representation on the National Assembly.
Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the latter of which Pakistan has used as a forum for Enlightened Moderation, a plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Muslim world. Pakistan is also a member of the major regional organisations of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO). In the past, Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States especially in the early 1950s when Pakistan was the United States' "most allied ally in Asia" and a member of both the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO). During the Soviet-Afghan war in the 1980s Pakistan was a crucial US ally, but relations soured in the 1990s, when sanctions were applied by the US over suspicions of Pakistan's nuclear activities. The September 11 attacks and the war on terror have seen an improvement in US–Pakistan ties, especially after Pakistan ended its support of the Taliban regime in Kabul.
Pakistan has had difficult relations with neighbouring India, including a long-running dispute over Kashmir which resulted in the 1947 and 1965 wars. The civil war of 1971 flared into the simultaneous Bangladeshi Liberation War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. India's nuclear tests of 1998 resulted in Pakistan's conducting of its own tests and becoming the only declared Muslim nuclear power. Pakistan maintains close economic, military and political relationships with the People's Republic of China. Pakistan also faces internal rebelion in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, where the tribal leaders support the Taliban; Pakistan has had to deploy its army in these regions to suppress the local unrest.
Provinces and territories
- Main article: Subdivisions of Pakistan
Pakistan is officially a federation of four provinces, a capital territory and federally administered tribal areas. Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the Kashmir region, organised as two separate political entities (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas), which are also claimed by India. In 2001 the federal government abolished the third tier of government (administrative divisions) in favour of the former fourth tier districts. The provinces and the capital territory are subdivided into a total of 107 districts which contain numerous tehsils and local governments. The tribal areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts whilst Azad Kashmir comprises seven districts and Northern Areas comprises six districts.
Pakistani-administered portions of the Kashmir region:
Geography and climate
- Main article: Geography of Pakistan
Pakistan covers 880,254 square kilometres (340,022 sq mi), approximately the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom, with its eastern regions located on the Indian tectonic plate and the western and northern regions on the Iranian plateau and Eurasian landplate. Apart from the 1,046 kilometre (650 mi) Arabian Sea coastline, Pakistan's land borders total 6,774 kilometres—2,430 kilometres (1,510 mi) with Afghanistan to the northwest, 523 kilometres (325 mi) with China to the northeast, 2,912 kilometres (1,809 mi) with India to the east and 909 kilometres (565 mi) with Iran to the southwest.
The different types of natural features range from the sandy beaches, lagoons, and mangrove swamps of the southern coast to preserved moist temperate forests and the icy peaks of the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindu Kush mountains in the north. Many of the mountains, including K2 and Nanga Parbat (in Pakistan occupied Kashmir) are over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) high and covered in snow and glaciers. Linking the two areas and running the length of the country is the Indus River and its many tributaries. To the west of the Indus are the dry, hilly deserts of Balochistan; to the east are the rolling sand dunes of the Thar Desert. Most areas of Punjab and parts of Sindh are fertile plains where agriculture is of great importance.
The climate varies as much as the scenery with very cold winters and hot summers in the north and a mild maritime-influenced climate in the south. The central parts have extremely hot summers with temperatures rising to 45 ºC (113 ºF), followed by very cold winters, often falling below freezing. There is very little rainfall ranging from less than 250 millimetres to more than 1,250 millimetres (9.8–49.2 in), mostly brought by the unreliable south-westerly monsoon winds during the late summer. Water shortages have been eased by the construction of dams on the rivers and the sinking of water wells in many drier areas.
Flora and fauna
The wide variety of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows for a wide variety of wild animals and birds. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the northern mountains to deciduous trees such as the mulberry-type shisham in the Sulaiman range in the south. The western hills have juniper and tamarisk as well as coarse grasses and scrub plants. Along the coast are mangrove forests which form much of the coastal wetlands.
In the south, there are crocodiles in the murky waters at the mouth of the Indus River whilst on the banks of the river, there are boars, deer, porcupines, and small rodents. In the sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are found jackals, hyenas, wild cats, panthers, and leopards while the clear blue skies abound with hawks, falcons, and eagles. In the northern mountains are a variety of endangered animals including Marco Polo sheep, Urial sheep, Markhor and Ibex goats, black and brown Himalayan bears, and the very rare Snow Leopard. Another rare species is the blind Indus River Dolphin of which there are believed to be about 1,000 remaining, protected in two major sanctuaries. In recent years the number of wild animals being killed for fur and leather trading led to a new law banning the hunting of wild animals and birds and the establishment of several wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves.
- Main article: Economy of Pakistan
Pakistan is a rapidly developing country which has faced a number of challenges on the political and economic fronts. Despite being a very poor country in 1947, Pakistan's economic growth rate was better than the global average during the subsequent four decades, but imprudent policies led to a slowdown in the late 1990s. Recently, wide-ranging economic reforms have resulted in a stronger economic outlook and accelerated growth especially in the manufacturing and financial services sectors. There has been a great improvement in the foreign exchange position and a rapid growth in hard currency reserves in recent years. The 2005 estimate of foreign debt was close to US$40 billion. However, this has decreased in recent years with assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and debt-relief from the United States. Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 was estimated at US$385.2 billion and its per capita GDP was US$2,400. In the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2005, Pakistan's GDP growth rate was 8.4%, the second-highest after China, among the ten most populous countries in the world. The growth of non-agricultural sectors has changed the structure of the economy, and agriculture now only accounts for roughly 20% of the GDP. The service sector accounts for 53% of the country's GDP with wholesale and retail trade forming 30% of this sector.
- Main article: Demographics of Pakistan
Pakistan has the world's sixth largest population, more than Russia, but less than Brazil; because of Pakistan's high growth rate, it is expected to surpass Brazil in population in the year 2020. Population projections for Pakistan are relatively difficult because of the apparent differences in the accuracy of each census and the inconsistencies between various surveys related to fertility rate, but it is likely that the rate of growth peaked in 1980s. The population was estimated at 162,400,000 on July 1, 2005, with a fertility rate of 34 per thousand, a death rate of 10 per thousand and the rate of natural increase was 2.4%. Pakistan also had a high infant mortality rate of 85 per thousand births.
Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan but English is the official language used in the Constitution and widely used by corporate businesses, the educated urban elite and most universities. Punjabi is spoken by over 60 million people, but has no official recognition in the country. The population comprises several main ethnic groups, most of whom speak Indo-Iranian languages - Punjabis (44.15% of the population), Pakhtuns (15.42%), Sindhis (14.1%), Seraikis (10.53%), Muhajirs (7.57%), Balochis (3.57%) and others (4.66%).
Census data indicates that 96% of the population are Muslims of whom nearly 80% are Sunni Muslims and 20% are Shi'a Muslims. The non-Muslim population mainly comprises of Christians (1.6% of the population) and Hindus (1.6%), Ahmadis, Buddhists, Jews, Sikhs, Zoroastrians, and Animists (mainly the Kalash in Chitral). The demographics of Pakistan were significantly influenced in 1947 by the movement of Muslims to Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs to India. More recently about four million refugees have settled permanently in Pakistan as a result of the wars in Afghanistan, but the census does not yet include them in official figures.
Society and culture
- Main article: Culture of Pakistan
Pakistan has a rich and unique culture that has preserved established traditions throughout history. Prior to the Islamic invasion, many Punjabis and Sindhis were Hindu and Buddhist but this changed during the expansion of Islam by the Ummayad General Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni and others. Many cultural practices, foods, monuments, and shrines were inherited from the rule of Muslim Mughal and Afghan emperors including the national dress of shalwar kameez. Women wear brightly coloured shalwar kameez, while men often wear solid-coloured shalwar kameez, usually with a sherwani (coat) that goes over the shalwar kameez.
The rich variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Other major Ghazal singers include Mehdi Hassan, Ghulam Ali, Farida Khanum, Abida Parveen and Iqbal Bano. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pashto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution centre for Afghan music abroad. Until the 1990s, the state-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Radio Pakistan) were the dominant media outlets, but there are now numerous private television channels such as Geo TV, Indus TV, Mashriq, Hum and ARY with a strong focus on plays or soap operas - some of them critically acclaimed. Various American, European, and Asian television channels and movies are available to a majority of the population via cable and satellite television. There are also small indigenous movie industries based in Lahore and Peshawar (often referred to as Lollywood and Pollywood). Although Bollywood movies are banned, pirated discs are easily available, so Indian film stars are popular in Pakistan as well.
Pakistani society is largely multilingual and predominantly Muslim, with high regard for traditional family values, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system due to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. Recent decades have seen the emergence of a middle class in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Sukkur and Peshawar that wish to move in a liberal and secular direction, as opposed to the northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan that remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs. Increasing globalization has increased the influence of "Western culture" with Pakistan ranking 46th on the Kearney/FP Globalization Index. There are an approximated four million Pakistanis living abroad, with close to a half-million expatriates living in the United States and around a million living in Saudi Arabia.
Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan based on the diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes ranging from ancient ruins such as Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Taxila to the Himalayan hill stations that attract those interested in field sports, winter sports and mountaineering, which attracts adventurers from the around the world, especially to K2. The northern parts of Pakistan have many old fortresses, towers and other architecture as well as the Hunza and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the small pre-Islamic animist Kalasha community who claim descent from the army of Alexander the Great. Punjab is the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and historic Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital with many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid and the Shalimar Gardens.
- Main article: Holidays in Pakistan
There are many holidays and festivals celebrated annually in Pakistan. While Pakistan is an Islamic nation, there are also several secular holidays including Pakistan Day (March 23), Independence Day (August 14), Defence of Pakistan Day (September 6), the anniversaries of the birth (December 25) and death (September 11) of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and Allama Iqbal Day (November 9). Labour Day (also known as May Day) is also observed in Pakistan on May 1.
Several important festivals are celebrated by Pakistani Muslims during the year, dependent on moon sightings. Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is characterised by daytime fasting for 29 or 30 days and is followed by the festival of Eid ul-Fitr. In a second festival, Eid ul-Adha, an animal is sacrificed in remembrance of the actions of Abraham and the meat is shared with friends, family, and the less fortunate. Both Eid festivals are public holidays, when people visit family and friends, and children receive new clothes, presents, and sweets. Some sects celebrate the birthday of the prophet Muhammad in the third Islamic month (Rabi' al-Awwal) with Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi. Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Christians of Pakistan also celebrate their own festivals and saints' days. Sikhs come from across the world to visit several holy sites including the shrine of Guru Nanak at Hassan Abdal in the Attock District, and the birthplace of Guru Nanak at Nankana Sahib. There are also several regional and local festivals, such as the Punjabi festival of Basant, which marks the start of spring and is celebrated by kite flying.
- Main article: Sports In Pakistan
The official sport of Pakistan is field hockey, although cricket and squash are also popular. The national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (1992) and co-hosted the games twice (1987 and 1996). The team has also won the Australasia Cup in 1986, 1990, and 1994. At an international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. At the 2006 Winter Olympics, Pakistan sent two participants in alpine skiing to the Winter Olympics for the first time. Hockey is the sport that Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympiads, with three gold medals (1960, 1968, 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994). Pakistan has also hosted several international competitions, including the South Asian Federation Games in 1989 and 2004. A1 Grand Prix racing is also becoming popular with the entry of a Pakistani team in the 2005 season. The Tour de Pakistan, modelled after the Tour de France, is an annual cycling competition that covers the length and breadth of Pakistan.
International ties of Pakistan
|Geographical and geopolitical: Asia | South Asia | Indies|
|Historical and cultural: Commonwealth of Nations | Organization of the Islamic Conference|
|International organisations & trade: United Nations | World Trade Organisation | Asian Development Bank | South Asia Free Trade Agreement | SAARC | Non-Aligned Movement | G20 developing nations | G24 | Group of 77 | WIPO | ECO|
- ↑ World Gazetteer population estimate for 2006
- ↑ The Kashmir region is claimed by India and Pakistan. Both countries and China separately administer parts of the region with the Indian- and Pakistani-held areas defined by the Line of Control. The Pakistan–China border is not recognized by India.
- ↑ Text of the Now or Never pamphlet, issued on January 28, 1933
- ↑ University of Sheffield's archaeological research in Pakistan
- ↑ Minnesota State University page on Mohenjo-Daro
- ↑ Livius.org on the extent of the Achaemenid Empire
- ↑ Plutarch's Life of Alexander
- ↑ Infinity Foundation's translation of the Chach-Nama
- ↑ Library of Congress study of Pakistan
- ↑ Iqbal and the Pakistan Movement
- ↑ Jang.com page on the Lahore Resolution
- ↑ Estimates for the 1947 death toll
- ↑ "Community participation in disaster management can reduce the losses"
- ↑ 1971 war summary by BBC website
- ↑ US Country Studies article on the Bangladesh War
- ↑ Kargil conflict timeline on the BBC website
- ↑ Daily Telegraph (UK) article on the 1999 coup
- ↑ CBC News Brief from November 8, 2005
- ↑ President Musharraf on Enlightened Moderation
- ↑ Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia
- ↑ 'Taliban' gain sway in tribal region. Daily Times. December 31, 2005.
- ↑ The Constitutional basis of the Federation of Pakistan
- ↑ Constitutional article 246(b) on the Provincially Administered Tribal Areas
- ↑ a b India does not recognise Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas as part of Pakistan and refers to them as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK)
- ↑ Wildlife Sanctuaries of Pakistan
- ↑ Pakistan Studies URL accessed March 21, 2006
- ↑ CIA World Factbook URL accessed on March 20, 2006
- ↑ Bloomberg.com article: China's New Growth Challenger Is Pakistan
- ↑ Feeney and Alam, 2003
- ↑ Population Reference Bureau's 2005 World Data Sheet
- ↑ Ethnologue Western Punjabi
- ↑ Census results for languages of Pakistan
- ↑ Beinart, Peter. "Understate". The New Republic Online. July 01, 2002.
- ↑ Kearney Foreign Policy Globalization Index
- ↑ http://www.pakistaneconomist.com/database1/cover/c2000-50.asp URL accessed March 17, 2006
- ↑ Ahmed, Fasih. "U.S. Rules Give Pakistan a Windfall". Wall Street Journal. New York, New York. October 22, 2003. Page A18.
- ↑ Hussain, Shaiq. Musharraf to focus on Palestine in Saudia visit from today. The Nation. June 25, 2005. URL accessed March 17, 2006
- ↑ PTDC page on mountaineering
- ↑ Bharatiya Hockey
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